β-Cell mitochondria exhibit membrane potential heterogeneity that can be altered by stimulatory or toxic fuel levels

Jakob D. Wikstrom, Shana M. Katzman, Hibo Mohamed, Gilad Twig, Solomon A. Graf, Emma Heart, Anthony J.A. Molina, Barbara E. Corkey, Lina Moitoso De Vargas, Nika N. Danial, Sheila Collins, Orian S. Shirihai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations

Abstract

OBJECTIVE - β-Cell response to glucose is characterized by mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ) hyperpolarization and the production of metabolites that serve as insulin secretory signals. We have previously shown that glucose-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization accompanies the concentration-dependent increase in insulin secretion within a wide range of glucose concentrations. This observation represents the integrated response of a large number of mitochondria within each individual cell. However, it is currently unclear whether all mitochondria within a single β-cell represent a metabolically homogenous population and whether fuel or other stimuli can recruit or silence sizable subpopulations of mitochondria. This study offers insight into the different metabolic states of β-cell mitochondria. RESULTS - We show that mitochondria display a wide heterogeneity in ΔΨ and a millivolt range that is considerably larger than the change in millivolts induced by fuel challenge. Increasing glucose concentration recruits mitochondria into higher levels of homogeneity, while an in vitro diabetes model results in increased ΔΨ heterogeneity. Exploration of the mechanism behind heterogeneity revealed that temporary changes in ΔΨ of individual mitochondria, ATP-hydrolyzing mitochondria, and uncoupling protein 2 are not significant contributors to ΔΨ heterogeneity. We identified BAD, a proapoptotic BCL-2 family member previously implicated in mitochondrial recruitment of glucokinase, as a significant factor influencing the level of heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS - We suggest that mitochondrial ΔΨ heterogeneity in β-cells reflects a metabolic reservoir recruited by an increased level of fuels and therefore may serve as a therapeutic target.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2569-2578
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes
Volume56
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Oct 2007
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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