A conceptual graph-based model of creativity in learning

Benjamin Paaßen, Julian Dehne, Swathi Krishnaraja, Anastasia Kovalkov, Kobi Gal, Niels Pinkwart

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Teaching creativity is one of the key goals of modern education. Yet, promoting creativity in teaching remains challenging, not least because creative achievement is contingent on multiple factors, such as prior knowledge, the classroom environment, the instruction given, and the affective state of the student. Understanding these factors and their interactions is crucial for successfully integrating creativity in teaching. However, keeping track of all factors and interactions on an individual student level may well exceed the capacity of human teachers. Artificial intelligence techniques may thus prove helpful and necessary to support creativity in teaching. This paper provides a review of the existing literature on creativity. More importantly, the review is distilled into a novel, graph-based model of creativity with three target audiences: Educators, to gain a concise overview of the research and theory of creativity; educational researchers, to use the interactions predicted by theory to guide experimental design; and artificial intelligence researchers, who may use parts of the model as a starting point for tools which measure and facilitate creativity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1033682
JournalFrontiers in Education
StatePublished - 7 Nov 2022


  • 4P model
  • artificial intelligence in education
  • creativity
  • graph-based model
  • literature review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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