A cross-cultural investigation of reasons for participation in gymnastics

Gregory S. Kolt, Robert J. Kirkby, Michael Bar-Eli, Boris Blumenstein, Narender K. Chadha, J. Liu, Gretchen Kerr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


In order to investigate cross-cultural motives for participation in youth sport 701 gymnasts (M age = 10.6) from Australia, Canada, India, China, and Israel were administered the Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ Gill, Gross, & Huddleston, 1983). Principal components analysis of the PMQ on the total sample identified seven factors: Team/Affiliation, Popularity/Energy release, Challenge/Fun, Miscellaneous, Skills, Achievement, and Recognition/Excitement. Between groups multivariate analyses indicated significant differences on all of the factors. Many differences in participation motives appeared consistent with more general cultural influences. As well, a large number of commonalties existed among the cultural groups in reasons for participating in gymnastics. These findings have implications for the development of appropriate programs to encourage increased participation in gymnastics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-398
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Dec 1999


  • Cross-cultural
  • Gymnastics
  • Participation
  • Youth sport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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