A Game-Theory-Based Approach to Promoting Health Policy among Minorities

Chen Cohen, Lilach Rinot Levavi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


The importance of designing policy measures that government and other public bodies apply to different populations has been escalating in recent decades. This study seeks the best way to induce conservative minority groups to cooperate with healthcare policy. The case study focuses on the Bedouin population of Israel and its willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccination. The study is based on vaccination data from the Israel Ministry of Health for the country’s entire Bedouin population, twenty-four semi-structured in-depth interviews with relevant key stakeholders, and the use of game-theory tools to profile the players, the utility functions, and various equilibrium combinations. By comparing the groups and integrating game-theory tools into the process, we reveal variables that may affect healthcare processes among conservative minority communities. Finally, cross-tabulating the results with the interview findings strengthens the insights and allows a culturally adjusted policy to be adopted. The different starting points of different minority populations have implications for the design of requisite policies in both the short and the long terms. The analysis of the game allowed us to indicate the strategy that policymakers should adopt in consideration of variables that should be taken into account in order to improve cooperation and the ability to apply policy. To increase vaccination rates among conservative minority communities in general and the Bedouin population in particular, trust in the government must be increased in the long term. In the short term, trust in the medical profession must be increased, and also health literacy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4335
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • Bedouin
  • COVID-19 vaccination
  • conservative minorities
  • game theory
  • health literacy
  • public trust

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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