A hybrid model for evaluating exposure of the general population in Israel to air pollutants

Ilan Levy, Isabella Karakis, Tamar Berman, Moshe Amitay, Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Exposure to air pollution is associated with a wide range of health effects, including increased respiratory symptoms, cancer, reproductive and birth defects, and premature death. Air quality measurements by standardized measuring equipment, although accurate, can only provide an estimate for part of the population, with decreasing accuracy further away from the monitoring sites. Estimating pollution levels over large geographical domains requires the use of air quality models which ideally incorporate air quality measurements. In order to estimate actual exposure of the population to air pollution (population-weighted concentrations of air pollutants), there is a need to combine data from air quality models with population density data. Here we present the results of exposure estimates for the entire population of Israel using a chemical transport model combined with measurements from the national monitoring network. We evaluated the individual exposure levels for the entire population to several air pollutants based on census tract units. Using this hybrid model, we found that the entire population of Israel is exposed to concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 that exceed the target values but are below the environmental values according to the Israeli Clean Air Law. In addition, we found and that over 1.5 million residents are exposed to NOx at concentrations higher than the target values. This data may help decision makers develop targeted interventions to reduce the concentrations of specific pollutants, based on population-weighted exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4
JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Ambient air pollution
  • Chemical transport model
  • PM
  • PM
  • Population-weighted exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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