A modified Mediterranean diet is associated with the greatest reduction in alanine aminotransferase levels in obese type 2 diabetes patients: Results of a quasi-randomised controlled trial

A. Fraser, R. Abel, D. A. Lawlor, D. Fraser, A. Elhayany

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of different dietary interventions on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in obese patients with diabetes. Methods: A post hoc analysis of an open label, parallel design, quasi-randomised (allocation by alternation), controlled trial, conducted in Israel. Obese patients with diabetes (n=259), treated in the community, were centrally allocated to one of three diets: (1) the 2003 recommended American Diabetes Association diet (ADA): 50-55% carbohydrate, 30% fat and 20% protein, n=85; (2) a low glycaemic index (LGI) diet: 50-55% LGI carbohydrate, 30% fat, 15-20% protein, n=89; or (3) a modified Mediterranean diet (MMD): 35% LGI carbohydrate, 45% fat that was high in monounsaturated fat, 15-20% protein, n=85. ALT was measured at 6 and 12 months. Results: ALT levels decreased in all arms; however, the MMD was associated with the lowest ALT levels at month 6 (n=201: ADA n=64, LGI n=73, MMD n=64) and month 12 of follow-up (n=179). At 12 months mean ALT levels were 19.8±1.4 U/l in the ADA diet arm (n=54), 18.0±1.5 U/l in the LGI diet arm (n=64) and 14.4±1.7 in the MMD arm (n=61, p<0.001). Evidence for an effect of diet on ALT levels persisted when controlling for post-randomisation changes in waist to hip ratio, BMI, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) or triacylglycerol. Conclusions: A Mediterranean diet may have a beneficial effect on liver steatosis in obese patients with diabetes. Results of trials assessing the effect of dietary composition on clinical outcomes should be awaited before a decisive conclusion can be reached. In addition to clinical outcomes, such studies should address the issue of primary prevention of steatosis in high-risk and healthy individuals. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00520182 Funding: This study was supported by a grant from Tnuva Research Institute, Rehovot, Israel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1616-1622
Number of pages7
JournalDiabetologia
Volume51
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Sep 2008

Keywords

  • Alanine aminotransferase
  • Mediterranean diet
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • Randomised controlled trial
  • Type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism

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