A multi-stage down-draft evaporative cool tower for semi-enclosed spaces: Experiments with a water spraying system

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43 Scopus citations


A novel down-draft evaporative cool tower (DECT) was developed which incorporates a secondary air inlet and a complex longitudinal section that comprises two partly overlapping cones. The objective of this design is to conserve water while providing equal or superior cooling to conventional DECTs, in which dry ambient air is drawn in through a single inlet at the top and cooler moist air is delivered at the bottom. The complex section and the addition of a secondary air intake near the middle required a sophisticated water spraying system. In addition to maximizing the cooling potential, the spraying system was designed to limit spray drift beyond the base of the tower, to reduce maintenance costs (especially due to clogging of the sprayers) and to minimize pumping energy. Analysis shows that maximum cooling may be obtained either by employing a very fine spray, requiring the introduction of a relatively small volume of water, or by spraying a larger volume of coarser drops. However, spraying fine drops requires more pumping power, finer nozzles are more likely to clog and small drops of water aggravate the problem of drift near the tower base. If full evaporation of the water spray is not required and excess water is collected for reuse, the second option is thus preferable. In addition to the theoretical analysis, the paper presents experimental findings on temperature reduction, water consumption and cooling output of an 8-m high prototype tower constructed at Sede-Boqer, Israel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)430-440
Number of pages11
JournalSolar Energy
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1 May 2008


  • DECT
  • Evaporation
  • Passive cooling
  • Semi-enclosed spaces

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Materials Science


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