Biallelic mutations in the zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP70) gene cause combined immunodeficiency (CID). Neonatal screening for severe CID in Israel is implemented since 2015. We report on clinical, flow cytometry, and genetic data of an unusual ZAP70 deficiency patient. A 10-week-old Bedouin female presented with severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) negative packed cell therapy was given without improvement; indexes of hemolysis worsened. At this time, thrombocytopenia was noted. The patient was treated with single dose of 1 g/kg intravenous immunoglobulin with rapid resolution of hemolysis. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were normal; flow cytometry revealed severe CD8 lymphocytopenia. Lymphocyte proliferation test demonstrated reduced response to concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin. Gated T cells were negative for intracellular ZAP70. A genetic analysis revealed a missense homozygous c.1388C > T (p.A463V) mutation, confirming the diagnosis of ZAP70 deficiency. She later on developed urinary tract infection due to ESBL producing E. coli treated with amikacin and severe CMV infection that partially responded to ganciclovir therapy and at 7 months of age, she successfully underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Neonatal screening by T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) for SCID was normal, yet very low TRECs were recorded at the time of CID diagnosis. Normal neonatal screening for SCID does not rule out the diagnosis of CID due to ZAP70 deficiency. This type of CID can present with autoimmunity as the sole initial manifestation of the disease.
- ZAP70 deficiency
ASJC Scopus subject areas