A platinum black-modified microelectrode for in situ olanzapine detection in microliter volumes of undiluted serum

Rajendra P. Shukla, Robert H. Belmaker, Yuly Bersudsky, Hadar Ben-Yoav

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Olanzapine is a thienobenzodiazepine compound. It is one of the newer types of antipsychotic drugs used in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Several methods have been reported for analyzing olanzapine in its pure form or combined with other drugs and in biological fluids. These methods include high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. Although many of the reported methods are accurate and sensitive, they require the use of sophisticated equipment, lack in situ analysis, and require expensive reagents. Moreover, several of these methods are cumbersome, require prolonged sample pretreatment, strict control of pH, and long reaction times. Here we present the development of a miniaturized electrochemical sensor that will enable minimally invasive, real-time, and in situ monitoring of olanzapine levels in microliter volumes of serum samples. For this purpose, we modified a microfabricated microelectrode with a platinum black film to increase the electrocatalytic activity of the microelectrode towards olanzapine oxidation; this improved the overall selectivity and sensitivity of the sensor. We observed in recorded voltammograms the anodic current dose response characteristics in microliter volumes of olanzapine-spiked serum samples that resulted in a limit of detection of 28.6 ± 1.3 nM and a sensitivity of 0.14 ± 0.02 µA/cm2 nM. Importantly, the platinum black-modified microelectrode exhibited a limit of detection that is below the clinical threshold (65–130 nM). Further miniaturizing and integrating such sensors into point-of-care devices provide real-time monitoring of olanzapine blood levels; this will enable treatment teams to receive feedback and administer adjustable olanzapine therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291-299
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Neural Transmission
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2020


  • Antipsychotic olanzapine
  • Electrochemical sensors
  • Point-of-care testing
  • Reduced graphene oxide
  • Serum
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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