A possible utilization of the mice forced swim test for modeling manic-like increase in vigor and goal-directed behavior

Shlomit Flaisher-Grinberg, Haim Einat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: The lack of appropriate animal models for bipolar disorder (BPD) is a major factor hindering the research of its pathophysiology and the development of new drug treatments. In line with the notion that BPD might represent a heterogeneous group of disorders, it was suggested that models for specific domains of BPD should be developed. The present study tested the possible utilization of the forced swim test (FST) as a model for the heightened vigor and goal-directed behavior domain of mania, using mice with low baseline immobility. Methods: Black Swiss mice were previously identified to have low immobility in the FST but similar spontaneous activity levels compared with several other mice strains. Thus, spontaneous activity and behavior in the FST were evaluated following treatment with the mood stabilizer valproate and the antidepressant imipramine. Results: The results indicated that valproate increased immobility in the FST without affecting spontaneous activity whereas imipramine had no effect in the FST but increased spontaneous activity. Discussion: These findings suggest that in mice with low baseline immobility scores, the FST might be a useful model for the elevated vigor and goal-directed behavior domain of mania. As such, this test might be well integrated into a battery of models for different domains of BPD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-145
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
Volume59
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2009
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Affective disorders
  • Animal models
  • Bipolar disorder
  • Endophenotypes
  • Mania
  • Methods
  • Mice
  • Mood stabilizers
  • Predictive validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology

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