A Prospective, Population-based Study to Determine the Incidence and Bacteriology of Bacterial Conjunctivitis in Children <2 Years of Age following 7-Valent and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Sequential Implementation

Ron Dagan, Shalom Ben-Shimol, David Greenberg, Noga Givon-Lavi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Bacterial conjunctivitis is most commonly caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae. No population-based data on the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) on the incidence of bacterial conjunctivitis have been published. We assessed rate dynamics of overall, pneumococcal, and NTHi conjunctivitis in children aged 2-23 months in southern Israel before and after PCV implementation. Methods: This is a 12-year prospective, population-based surveillance, from July 2004 through June 2017. Our medical center serves a captive population of approximately 30 000 children <2 years of age, and its clinical microbiology laboratory processes > 80% of all community-derived cultures, enabling incidence calculation. The 7-valent and 13-valent PCVs (PCV7 and PCV13, respectively) were implemented in the national immunization program in July 2009 and November 2010, respectively. Pneumococci, NTHi, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes were considered pathogens. Continuous annual incidences and incidence rate ratios comparing the PCV13 period (2015-2017) to the pre-PCV period (2004-2008) were calculated. Results: Disease caused by PCV13 serotypes declined by 93%, without significant replacement with non-PCV13 serotypes. Rates of pneumococcal, NTHi, and overall culture-positive episodes declined by 59%, 41%, and 42%, respectively, while rates of culture-negative and other pathogens episodes did not change significantly. An overall reduction in all submitted culture rates of 35% was observed. This pattern was seen across all ages, including infants aged 2-5 months. Conclusions: PCV7/PCV13 implementation resulted in a marked and significant decline in pneumococcal, NTHi, and overall conjunctivitis rates in children < 2 years of age. The impact on NTHi episodes alludes to the role of pneumococcus-NTHi interaction in conjunctivitis. The impact in infants aged < 6 months suggests herd protection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1200-1207
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume72
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2021

Keywords

  • S. pneumonia
  • conjunctivitis
  • nontypeable H. influenzae
  • pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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