A Rare Variant in PGAP2 Causes Autosomal Recessive Hyperphosphatasia with Mental Retardation Syndrome, with a Mild Phenotype in Heterozygous Carriers

Yonatan Perez, Ohad Wormser, Yair Sadaka, Ruth Birk, Ginat Narkis, Ohad S. Birk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mutations in genes involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor cause autosomal recessive glycosylation defects, with a wide phenotypic spectrum of intellectual disability, seizures, minor facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. We now describe consanguineous Bedouin kindred presenting with an autosomal recessive syndrome of intellectual disability and elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. Genome-wide linkage analysis identified 6 possible disease-associated loci. Whole-exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing validation identified a single variant in PGAP2 as the disease-causing mutation (C.554G>A; p.185(R>Q)), segregating as expected within the kindred and not found in 150 Bedouin controls. The mutation replaces a highly conserved arginine residue with glutamine within the Frag1 (FGF receptor activating) domain of PGAP2. Interestingly, this mutation is a known dbSNP variant (rs745521288, build 147) with a very low allele frequency (0.00000824 in dbSNP, no homozygotes reported), highlighting the fact that dbSNP variants should not be automatically ruled out as disease-causing mutations. We further showed that PGAP2 is ubiquitously expressed, but in line with the disease phenotype, it is highly transcribed in human brain, skeletal muscle, and liver. Interestingly, a mild phenotype of slightly elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and significant learning disabilities was observed in heterozygous carriers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3470234
JournalBioMed Research International
Volume2017
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology (all)

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