Academic goal orientations, multiple goal profiles, and friendship intimacy among early adolescents

Inbal Levy-Tossman, Avi Kaplan, Avi Assor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

80 Scopus citations


This study investigated the relations between early adolescents' academic motivational orientations and an aspect of quality of friendship: intimacy. Two-hundred and three Jewish-Israeli seventh grade students responded to surveys asking them about their academic achievement goals and about characteristics of their friendships. Variable-centered regression analyses suggested that mastery goals were positively associated with mutual sharing of difficulties, trust, and adaptive social problem-solving between friends, whereas performance-approach goals were negatively associated with intimacy friendship. Moreover, both performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals were associated with mistrust, inconsideration, and tension between friends. A person-centered analysis, employing cluster analysis, suggested that profiles with a higher level of mastery goals relative to both types of performance goals were associated with less mistrust among friends in comparison with profiles with a higher level of performance goals relative to mastery goals. The findings point to the connection between academic motivation and social relationships in school.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-252
Number of pages22
JournalContemporary Educational Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2007


  • Adolescence
  • Friendship
  • Intimacy
  • Motivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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