This research continues the development of a computation tool to examine accessibility in a metropolitan area at high spatial resolution –that of the individual building. We use this tool to examine the issue of equity in transportation infrastructure. Our measure of accessibility is relative – it looks at different modes of mobility, particularly private and public transport, and examines the relative ease of reaching desired destinations using each mode. In this research we extend our discussion into the way public transport serves those who are dependent on it, and who, for lack of financial means, age, or disability are not able to use private cars. To measure the inequity of the transportation system we use the traditional measures defined in economics: the Lorenz Curve, Gini Index and the Poverty Line. Further, we utilize a method to estimate the areas (TAZ) which are more dependent on public transport, beyond low income, car ownership, or actual public transport use. We show that there is a clear pattern of public transport dependency in the metropolitan area of Tel-Aviv: dependency is especially high in the towns of the outer ring of the metropolitan area. Generally speaking, the North-South divide visible in the city of Tel-Aviv – Yafo continues into the metropolitan area along two axes towards the South and Southeast, and the Northeast. Using these concepts we estimate the relative and absolute loss of accessibility, and the accessibility poverty, for the city of Tel-Aviv – Yafo to all jobs throughout the metropolitan area. We compare between the public transport system before and after the bus reform of 2011. Our results show that overall accessibility by public transport, relative to private cars, improved significantly, and thus accessibility poverty was reduced significantly in Tel-Aviv. However, the overall inequity between different zones, particularly with regard to public transport dependency, remained about the same and became even somewhat larger. It will require further analyses to assess the impacts of the recent investments in public transport infrastructure on the equity across the entire metropolitan area.
|State||Published - 1 Apr 2015|