## Abstract

An adiabatic approximation for the Liouville density-matrix equation which includes decay terms is developed. The adiabatic approximation employs the eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator. The approximation is valid when there exists a complete set of eigenvectors of the non-normal Liouville operator (i.e., the eigenvectors span the density-matrix space), the time rate of change of the Liouville operator is small, and an auxiliary matrix is nonsingular. Numerical examples are presented involving efficient population transfer in a molecule by stimulated Raman scattering, with the intermediate level of the molecule decaying on a time scale that is fast compared with the pulse durations of the pump and Stokes fields. The adiabatic density-matrix approximation can be simply used to determine the density matrix for atomic or molecular systems interacting with cw electromagnetic fields when spontaneous emission or other decay mechanisms prevail.

Original language | English |
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Pages (from-to) | 6643-6651 |

Number of pages | 9 |

Journal | Physical Review A |

Volume | 45 |

Issue number | 9 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - 1 Jan 1992 |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics