Like the Eukarya and Bacteria, the Archaea also perform N glycosylation. Using the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii as a model system, a series of Agl proteins involved in the archaeal version of this posttranslational modification has been identified. In the present study, the participation of HVO-1517 in N glycosylation was considered, given its homology to a known component of the eukaryal N-glycosylation pathway and because of the genomic proximity of HVO-1517 to agl genes encoding known elements of the H. volcanii N-glycosylation process. By combining the deletion of HVO-1517 with mass spectrometric analysis of both dolichol phosphate monosaccharide-charged carriers and the S-layer glycoprotein, evidence was obtained showing the participation of HVO-1517, renamed AglJ, in adding the first hexose of the N-linked pentasaccharide decorating this reporter glycoprotein. The deletion of aglJ, however, did not fully prevent the attachment of a hexose residue to the S-layer glycoprotein. Moreover, in the absence of AglJ, the level of only one of the three monosaccharide-charged dolichol phosphate carriers detected in the cell was reduced. Nonetheless, in cells lacking AglJ, no further sugar subunits were added to the remaining monosaccharide-charged dolichol phosphate carriers or to the monosaccharide-modified S-layer glycoprotein, pointing to the importance of the sugar added through the actions of AglJ for proper N glycosylation. Finally, while aglJ can be deleted, H. volcanii surface layer integrity is compromised in the absence of the encoded protein.