The Ca2+-activated SK4 K+ channel is gated by Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) and is expressed in immune cells, brain, and heart. A cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the human SK4 K+ channel recently revealed four CaM molecules per channel tetramer, where the apo CaM C-lobe and the holo CaM N-lobe interact with the proximal carboxyl terminus and the linker S4-S5, respectively, to gate the channel. Here, we show that phosphatidylinositol 4-5 bisphosphate (PIP2) potently activates SK4 channels by docking to the boundary of the CaM-binding domain. An allosteric blocker, BA6b9, was designed to act to the CaM-PIP2-binding domain, a previously untargeted region of SK4 channels, at the interface of the proximal carboxyl terminus and the linker S4-S5. Site-directed mutagenesis, molecular docking, and patch-clamp electrophysiology indicate that BA6b9 inhibits SK4 channels by interacting with two specific residues, Arg191 and His192 in the linker S4-S5, not conserved in SK1-SK3 subunits, thereby conferring selectivity and preventing the Ca2+-CaM N-lobe from properly interacting with the channel linker region. Immunohistochemistry of the SK4 channel protein in rat hearts showed a widespread expression in the sarcolemma of atrial myocytes, with a sarcomeric striated Z-band pattern, and a weaker occurrence in the ventricle but a marked incidence at the intercalated discs. BA6b9 significantly prolonged atrial and atrioventricular effective refractory periods in rat isolated hearts and reduced atrial fibrillation induction ex vivo. Our work suggests that inhibition of SK4 K+ channels by targeting drugs to the CaM-PIP2-binding domain provides a promising anti-arrhythmic therapy.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - 15 Aug 2022|
- atrial fibrillation
- potassium channel
ASJC Scopus subject areas