An integrated duckweed and algae pond system for nitrogen removal and renovation

Peter Van Der Steen, Asher Brenner, Gideon Oron

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


An integrated pond system, consisting of duckweed and algae ponds, was investigated for duckweed production and for further treatment of anaerobically treated domestic wastewater. The system consisted of 10 ponds in series, arranged in 3 stages of 2 duckweed ponds, 3 algae ponds and 5 duckweed ponds, respectively. Production of duckweed ranged from 7.4-16.4 g/( (or 27-60 ton/(ha.year)) dry weight in the first pond, to 2.7-8.2 g/( (or 10-30 ton/(ha.year))in the last pond. Regression analysis suggested that the production was positively influenced by the concentration of organic compounds in the pond water. The ammonium concentration in the range of 20-60 mg/l NH4-N did not affect duckweed production. Fifty-six percent of the pond influent nitrogen, mainly ammonium, was removed. Ammonium removal was due to uptake by the duckweed plants (18%), nitrification (3%), sedimentation (8%) and combined volatilization of NH3 and denitrification (73%).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-343
Number of pages9
JournalWater Science and Technology
Issue number1 pt 1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1998
EventProceedings of the 1998 19th Biennial Conference of the International Association on Water Quality. Part 1 (of 9) - Vancouver, Can
Duration: 21 Jun 199826 Jun 1998


  • Duckweed ponds
  • Integrated systems
  • Lemna giba
  • Nutrient removal
  • Stabilization ponds
  • Wastewater treatment


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