High-resolution three-dimensional simulations (involving 100 million degrees of freedom) were employed to study transient turbulent flow in a carotid arterial bifurcation with a stenosed internal carotid artery (ICA). The geometrical model was reconstructed from MRI images, and in vivo velocity measurements were incorporated in the simulations to provide inlet and outlet boundary conditions. Due to the high degree of the ICA occlusion and the variable flow rate, a transitional and intermittent flow between laminar and turbulent states was established. Time- and space-window proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was applied to quantify the different flow regimes in the occluded artery. A simplified version of the POD analysis that utilizes 2D slices only-more appropriate in the clinical setting-was also investigated.
- Transitional flow