Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Ameliorate Brain Inflammation Associated with Microglial Activation: Possible Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease

Nofar Torika, Keren Asraf, Ella Roasso, Abraham Danon, Sigal Fleisher-Berkovich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations

Abstract

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts Angiotensin I to a potent vasoconstrictor angiotensin II (ANG II). ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely used for the management of hypertension. All components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) have also been identified in the brain. In addition to cytokines, neuromodulators such as ANG II can induce neuroinflammation. Moreover, in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) models, where neuroinflammation occurs and is thought to contribute to the propagation of the disease, increased levels of ANG II and ACE have been detected. However, the specific effect of ACEIs on neuroinflammation and AD remains obscure. The present study suggests that captopril and perindopril, centrally active ACEIs, may serve as modulators for microglial activation associated with AD. Our in vitro study investigated the effect of both ACEIs on nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) release and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglia. Exposure of BV2 microglia to ACEIs significantly attenuated the LPS-induced NO and TNF-α release. In vivo, short term intranasal administration of perindopril or captopril to 5 Familial AD (5XFAD) mice significantly reduced amyloid burden and CD11b expression (a microglial marker) or only CD11b expression respectively, in the cortex of 5XFAD. Long-term intranasal administration of captopril to mice reduced amyloid burden with no effect on CD11b expression. We provide evidence that intranasal delivery of ACEI may serve as an efficient alternative for their systemic administration, as it results in the attenuation of microglial accumulation and even the reduction of Amyloid β (Aβ) plaques.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)774-785
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Volume11
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2016

Keywords

  • Amyloid β
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
  • Captopril
  • Microglia
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Perindopril

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology

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