Animal models of bipolar disorder and mood stabilizer efficacy: A critical need for improvement

Todd D. Gould, Haim Einat

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

105 Scopus citations


The limited number of suitable animal models of bipolar disorder available for in-depth behavioral, biochemical, histological, and pharmacological analysis is a rate-limiting step in the process of understanding the relevant neurobiology of the disorder, as well as the development of novel medications. In the search for new models, both new and old approaches hold promise for future discoveries. Clinical studies regarding the underlying genetics and pathophysiology of bipolar disorder are providing important clues. In particular, the identification of susceptibility genes for bipolar disorder will help to define specific neurobiological processes, and associated behaviors, that are unquestionably involved in the pathways connecting genes and distal symptoms. These endophenotypes will hold great value in further enhancing the validity of animal models and will strongly complement symptom-based models and models of medication efficacy. Regardless of the path taken by different researchers to develop better models, we believe that this area of work requires additional attention not only from researchers but also from funding agencies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)825-831
Number of pages7
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Issue number6
StatePublished - 24 Aug 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Animal model
  • Antidepressants
  • Antipsychotics
  • Depression
  • Lithium
  • Manic-depressive illness
  • Mouse
  • Rat
  • Valproic acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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