Antioxidants and human diseases

Peramaiyan Rajendran, Natarajan Nandakumar, Thamaraiselvan Rengarajan, Rajendran Palaniswami, Edwinoliver Nesamony Gnanadhas, Uppalapati Lakshminarasaiah, Jacob Gopas, Ikuo Nishigaki

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

274 Scopus citations

Abstract

Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the development of human diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) that includes hydrogen peroxide, hyphochlorus acid, superoxide anion, singlet oxygen, lipid peroxides, hypochlorite and hydroxyl radical are involved in growth, differentiation, progression and death of the cell. They can react with membrane lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, enzymes and other small molecules. Low concentrations of ROS has an indispensable role in intracellular signalling and defence against pathogens, while, higher amounts of ROS play a role in number of human diseases, including arthritis, cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, ischemia, failures in immunity and endocrine functions. Antioxidants presumably act as safeguard against the accumulation of ROS and their elimination from the system. The aim of this review is to highlight advances in understanding of the ROS and also to summarize the detailed impact and involvement of antioxidants in selected human diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)332-347
Number of pages16
JournalClinica Chimica Acta
Volume436
DOIs
StatePublished - 25 Sep 2014

Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

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