Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Their Relationship With Infections, Vaccines, and Drugs

Jiram Torres Ruiz, Miri Blank, Gisele Zandman-Goddard, Yaniv Sherer, Yehuda Shoenfeld

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) may accompany a response to many infectious agents. The emergence of aPL may be transient or associated with the clinical picture of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) with thrombosis, recurrent foetal loss, central nervous system, and other organ involvement. The most studied pathogenic aPL antibodies are directed to the β2-glycoprotein-I (β2GPI) molecule. Studies on experimental APS models proved that molecular mimicry between β2GPI-related synthetic peptides and structures within bacteria, viruses, and tetanus toxoid can induce experimental APS. Any explanation of how microbial infections might trigger APS must take into account the observation that all individuals appear to harbour potentially autoreactive lymphocytes, as well as natural aPL, but they remain innocuous unless somehow activated by a second hit. In this chapter, we discuss the association of aPL with infections, vaccines, and drugs, with molecular mimicry as a proposed cause for the development of APS.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases
PublisherElsevier Ltd.
Number of pages13
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2017

Publication series

NameHandbook of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases
ISSN (Print)1571-5078


  • Antiphospholipid antibody
  • antiphospholipid syndrome
  • drug
  • infection
  • vaccine
  • β2 glycoprotein I

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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