Application of three-dimensional culture systems to study mammalian spermatogenesis, with an emphasis on the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta)

Mahmoud Huleihel, Seyedmehdi Nourashrafeddin, Tony M. Plant

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations

Abstract

In vitro culture of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) has generally been performed using two-dimensional (2D) culture systems; however, such cultures have not led to the development of complete spermatogenesis. It seems that 2D systems do not replicate optimal conditions of the seminiferous tubules (including those generated by the SSC niche) and necessary for spermatogenesis. Recently, one of our laboratories has been able to induce proliferation and differentiation of mouse testicular germ cells to meiotic and postmeiotic stages including generation of sperm in a 3D soft agar culture system (SACS) and a 3D methylcellulose culture system (MCS). It was suggested that SACS and MCS form a special 3D microenvironment that mimics germ cell niche formation in the seminiferous tubules, and thus permits mouse spermatogenesis in vitro. In this review, we (1) provide a brief overview of the differences in spermatogenesis in rodents and primates, (2) summarize data related to attempts to generate sperm in vitro, (3) report for the first time formation of colonies/clusters of cells and differentiation of meiotic (expression of CREM-1) and postmeiotic (expression of acrosin) germ cells from undifferentiated spermatogonia isolated from the testis of prepubertal rhesus monkeys and cultured in SACS and MCS, and (4) indicate research needed to optimize 3D systems for in vitroprimate spermatogenesis and for possible future application to man.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)972-980
Number of pages9
JournalAsian Journal of Andrology
Volume17
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2015

Keywords

  • In vitro spermatogenesis
  • Methylcellulose culture system
  • Monkey
  • Primates
  • Soft agar culture system
  • Three-dimensional culture system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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