Assessing the outdoor operating temperature of photovoltaic modules

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319 Scopus citations


By a careful study of data collected from seven varieties of photovoltaic (PV) module it is demonstrated that a simple modified form of the Hottel-Whillier-Bliss (HWB) equation, familiar from the analysis of flat-plate solar-thermal collectors, can be employed to predict module temperatures within an accuracy comparable to the cell-to-cell temperature differences typically encountered within a module. Furthermore, for modules within the range of construction parameters employed in this study, the actual values of the two modified HWB constants do not appear to depend upon module type. The implication of these results for the accuracy of outdoor module characterization is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)307-315
Number of pages9
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2008


  • Hottel-Whillier-Bliss
  • PV module temperature

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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