Reliable and sensitive detection of xanthine has important medical and biological significance. In this work, a novel three-dimensional (3D) conductive polymer hydrogel of polyaniline (PAni) was feasibly prepared using aniline (Ani), amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP) and ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8) as monomer, gelatinizing agent and oxidizing agent, respectively. Protonation of aniline can be achieved by ATMP, inducing good conductivity of the obtained hydrogel. ATMP remained the chelating abilities in the conductive hydrogel, enabling further immobilization with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) functionalized by a luminol derivative, N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI). ABEI-Ag@PAni-ATMP exhibited an enhanced performance of solid-state electrochemiluminescence (ECL). Integrated with xanthine oxidase (XOD), the proposed biosensor can be applied in the detection of xanthine via in-situ generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and present a low detection limit of 9.6 nM, a wide linear range (from 0.01 to 200 μM) and excellent stability.
- Amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP)
- Conductive hydrogel
- Electrochemiluminescent (ECL)
- Luminol derivative
- Xanthine biosensor