Purpose of Review: To present current data on the coexistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults and children and to discuss possible mechanisms. Recent Findings: Emerging data suggest that risk factors for obesity and insulin resistance such as diabetes during pregnancy and intrauterine growth failure may also have a role in the development of ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD and obesity share lifestyle factors, such as abnormal eating patterns, binge eating, and a sedentary lifestyle. ADHD is a risk factor for components of the metabolic syndrome, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and also hypertension, both in adults and youth. Summary: Associations of ADHD with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have been ascertained, and various mechanisms have been proposed. Research is needed to decipher the shared genetic, pharmacological, and lifestyle risk factors. Individuals with ADHD should be treated as a high-risk group for cardiometabolic complications.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
- The metabolic syndrome
- Type 2 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism