Average Modeling and Performance Analysis of Voltage Sensorless Active Supercapacitor Balancer with Peak Current Protection

V. Yuhimenko, G. Geula, G. Agranovich, M. Averbukh, A. Kuperman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


In this paper, average modeling and analysis of a dual-supercapacitor bank, actively balanced by a bidirectional buck-boost converter, is presented. In such a system, natural balancing is achieved when the converter is operated in open loop with 50% duty cycle, eliminating the need for measuring the voltage of each storage device. Nevertheless, excessive currents arise even for slight voltage misbalance because of the highly underdamped nature of the system. In order to remedy this drawback, bidirectional pulse-by-pulse inductor current limitation is introduced, which is equivalent to adding a peak-current-mode-like control loop to the system. Since the duty cycle never exceeds 50%, compensation ramp is not required to maintain stability. On the other hand, while the uncontrolled system dynamics is linear, introducing the current limit mechanism turns the closed-loop dynamics into a nonlinear one, burdening the analysis task and thus calling for suitable average model to perform fast simulations for system analysis. Therefore, dynamical equations of the system are developed in order to derive the switching-cycle-averaged model and reveal the tradeoff between current limit level, balancing time and efficiency for the worst case of imbalance. Simulations and experiments support the presented findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7442852
Pages (from-to)1570-1578
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Active balancing
  • buck-boost converter
  • current limitation
  • dynamic model
  • supercapacitor (SC) bank

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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