Azimuth, elevation, and time-delay distributions in wireless communication channels

N. Blaunstein, M. Toeltsch, C. G. Christodoulou, J. Laurila, E. Tsalolihin, E. Bonek, P. Vainikainen, N. Tsouri, K. Kalliola, H. Laitinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


We investigate the wave-propagation characteristics in urban environments as functions of the angle-of-arrival distribution, both in the azimuth and elevation planes. We also take into consideration the time delays for various base-station antenna elevations. We combine a statistical multi-parametric model, describing randomly distributed buildings, and a waveguide model, describing a grid of crossing streets with buildings lining the sides to create a new stochastic model. The joint probability of signal distributions in the azimuth-elevation, azimuth-time delay, and elevation-time delay planes are obtained and compared with high-resolution three-dimensional experiments carried out in urban areas in Helsinki, Finland. A good agreement between experimental and theoretical results is obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-167
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Feb 2006


  • Communication channels
  • Delay effects
  • Delay estimation
  • Land mobile radio cellular systems
  • Land mobile radio diversity systems
  • Land mobile radio propagation factors
  • MIMO
  • Multibeam antennas
  • Smart antennas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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