Basic properties of X for which the space Cp(X) is distinguished

Jerzy Kakol, Arkady Leiderman

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In our paper [18] we showed that a Tychonoff space $X$ is a $\Delta$-space (in the sense of [20], [30]) if and only if the locally convex space $C_{p}(X)$ is distinguished. Continuing this research, we investigate whether the class $\Delta$ of $\Delta$-spaces is invariant under the basic topological operations. We prove that if $X \in \Delta$ and $\varphi:X \to Y$ is a continuous surjection such that $\varphi(F)$ is an $F_{\sigma}$-set in $Y$ for every closed set $F \subset X$, then also $Y\in \Delta$. As a consequence, if $X$ is a countable union of closed subspaces $X_i$ such that each $X_i\in \Delta$, then also $X\in \Delta$. In particular, $\sigma$-product of any family of scattered Eberlein compact spaces is a $\Delta$-space and the product of a $\Delta$-space with a countable space is a $\Delta$-space. Our results give answers to several open problems posed in \cite{KL}. Let $T:C_p(X) \longrightarrow C_p(Y)$ be a continuous linear surjection. We observe that $T$ admits an extension to a linear continuous operator $\widehat{T}$ from $R^X$ onto $R^Y$ and deduce that $Y$ is a $\Delta$-space whenever $X$ is. Similarly, assuming that $X$ and $Y$ are metrizable spaces, we show that $Y$ is a $Q$-set whenever $X$ is. Making use of obtained results, we provide a very short proof for the claim that every compact $\Delta$-space has countable tightness. As a consequence, under Proper Forcing Axiom (PFA) every compact $\Delta$-space is sequential. In the article we pose a dozen open questions.
Original languageEnglish GB
Pages (from-to)267-280
JournalProceedings of the American Mathematical Society
StatePublished - 2021


  • Mathematics - General Topology


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