Bias-Dependent Dynamics of Degradation and Recovery in Perovskite Solar Cells

M. Prete, M. V. Khenkin, D. Glowienka, B. R. Patil, J. S. Lissau, I. Dogan, J. L. Hansen, T. Leißner, J. Fiutowski, H. G. Rubahn, B. Julsgaard, P. Balling, V. Turkovic, Y. Galagan, E. A. Katz, M. Madsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Degradation of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is often found to be partially or fully reversible when the cells are allowed to recover in the dark. Unlike the dynamics of degradation, knowledge about the dynamics of PSC cell recovery is very limited. Here, we demonstrate that the PSC recovery strongly depends on the electrical bias conditions during the light-induced degradation and that it can be manipulated by applying an external electrical bias during the recovery phase. Investigation of the recovery dynamics allows us to analyze the degradation mechanisms in detail. More specifically, we aged a mixed-cation mixed-halide PSC with a n-i-p structure under illumination in open-circuit (OC) or short-circuit (SC) conditions, and periodically measured their characteristics during the recovery. PSCs aged in SC degrade faster and fully recover after the light is switched off, while the performance of the cells aged in OC does not recover but instead further decreases after the light is switched off (“drop-in-dark” effect). With the use of transient photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and drift-diffusion-based simulations, we hypothesize that extrinsic ion migration causes the drop-in-dark effect, by forming an electron extraction barrier at the metal oxide electron transport layer. The applied bias alleviates this effect. Our results are relevant for gaining a deeper understanding of the multiple degradation mechanisms present in perovskite solar cells, and for finding a practical way to assist their recovery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6562-6573
Number of pages12
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Issue number7
StatePublished - 26 Jul 2021


  • degradation mechanisms
  • ion migration
  • perovskite solar cells
  • recovery dynamics
  • stability and lifetime

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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