Biofilms are mostly considered as a slimy layer of microorganisms adhering to solid surface (de Beer and Stoodley 2006). The earliest phase of studying biofilms was focused on the physical properties of the solid surface, for example, roughness, hydrophobicity, and hydrophilicity. As electron microscopy developed, a more detailed picture of the structure of microbial biofilms emerged. The subsequent development of confocal scanning laser microscopy, coupled with fluorescent markers, allowed visualization of live hydrated biofilms as three-dimensional architecture (Costerton et al. 1995).
|Title of host publication||Porous Media Applications Biological Systems and Biotechnology|
|Number of pages||52|
|State||Published - 1 Jan 2010|