Biotransformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by Diaphorobacter sp. strain DS2

Swati Gupta, Shikhar S Goel, Gurunath Ramanathan, Zeev Ronen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Diaphorobacter strain DS2 degrades 3-nitrotoluene and 2-nitrotoluene via ring oxidation with 3-nitrotoluene dioxygenase (3NTDO). In the current study, we hypothesized that 3NTDO might also be involved in the degradation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), a major nitroaromatic explosive contaminant in soil and groundwater. Strain DS2 transforms TNT as a sole carbon and nitrogen source when grown on it. Ammonium chloride and succinate in the medium accelerated the TNT degradation rate. A resting cell experiment suggested that TNT does not compete with 3NT degradation (no negative impact of TNT on the reaction velocity for 3NT). Enzyme assay with 3NTDO did not exhibit TNT transformation activity. The above results confirmed that 3NTDO of DS2 is not responsible for TNT degradation. In the resting cell experiment, within 10 h, 4ADNT completely degraded. The degradation of 2ADNT was 97% at the same time. We hypothesized that 3NTDO involve in this reaction. Based on the DS2 genome, we proposed that the N-ethylmaleimide reductases (nemA) were involved in the initial reduction of the nitro group and aromatic ring of TNT. Our findings suggest that strain DS2 could be helpful for the removal of TNT from contaminated sites with or without any additional carbon and nitrogen source and with minimal accumulation of undesirable intermediates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)120749-120762
Number of pages14
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
StatePublished - 9 Nov 2023


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