Bonding and oxidation protection of Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC for a Ni-based superalloy

Maxim Sokol, Jian Yang, Hrishikesh Keshavan, Michel W. Barsoum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Alumina forming, oxidation and thermal shock resistant MAX phases are of a high interest for high temperature applications. Herein we report, on bonding and resulting interactions between a Ni-based superalloy, NSA, and two alumina forming MAX phases. The diffusion couples Cr2AlC/Inconel-718/Ti2AlC were assembled and heated to 1000 or 1100 °C in a vacuum hot press under loads corresponding to stresses of either 2 MPa or 20 MPa. The resulting interfaces were examined using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Good bonding between Cr2AlC and NSA was achieved after hot pressing at 1000 °C and a contact pressure of only 2 MPa; in the case of Ti2AlC a higher temperature (1100 °C) and pressure (20 MPa) were needed. In both cases, a diffusion bond, in which mainly Ni and Cr out diffused from the NSA into the MAX phase and a concomittant out diffusion of Al from the latter, was realized with no evidence of interfacial damage or cracking after cooling to room temperature. The reactions paths were determined to be: Cr2AlC/Cr7C3/Cr7C3,β-NiAl/α-Cr(Mo)/NSA and Ti2AlC/Ti2AlC,Ti3NiAl2C/β-NiAl/α-Cr(Mo)/NSA. Twenty thermal cycles from room temperature to 1000 °C showed that Ti2AlC is a poor oxidation barrier for Inconel-718. However, in the case of Cr2AlC no cracks, delamination nor surface degradation was observed, suggesting that this material could be used to protect Inconel-718 from oxidation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)878-882
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the European Ceramic Society
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1 Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Characterization
  • Diffusion
  • MAX phase
  • Nickel
  • Super alloy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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