Melanoma is among the most aggressive cancers due to its tendency to metastasize early. Phenotype switching between a proliferative and an invasive state has been suggested as a critical process for metastasis, though the mechanisms that regulate state transitions are complex and remain poorly understood. Brother of Regulator of Imprinted Sites (BORIS), also known as CCCTC binding factor-Like (CTCFL), is a transcriptional modulator that becomes aberrantly expressed in melanoma. Yet, the role of BORIS in melanoma remains elusive. Here, we show that BORIS is involved in melanoma phenotype switching. Genetic modification of BORIS expression in melanoma cells combined with whole-transcriptome analysis indicated that BORIS expression contributes to an invasion-associated transcriptome. In line with these findings, inducible BORIS overexpression in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and increased migration and invasion, demonstrating that the transcriptional switch is accompanied by a phenotypic switch. Mechanistically, we reveal that BORIS binds near the promoter of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TFGB1), a well-recognized factor involved in the transition towards an invasive state, which coincided with increased expression of TGFB1. Overall, our study indicates a pro-invasive role for BORIS in melanoma via transcriptional reprogramming.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology
- Cancer Research