Brief Report: Longitudinal Associations between Place of Sex Work and Client Condom Coercion among Sex Workers in Baltimore, Maryland

Carmen H. Logie, Rebecca H. White, Noya Galai, Catherine Tomko, Susan G. Sherman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction: The sex work environment influences sex workers' control over enforcing condom use. Sex work in outdoor and public spaces, compared with indoor spaces, may inhibit condom negotiation. We examined longitudinal associations between public place of sex work and condom coercion among female sex workers.Methods: This cohort study involved 5 data collection points over 1 year among female sex workers (N = 246) in Baltimore, Maryland, recruited by targeted sampling. We conducted bivariate analyses to examine associations between currently conducting any sex work in a public place (PPSW, eg, car, abandoned house, street, park/forest, and public bathroom) vs. exclusively indoor sex work (eg, house, motel, and dance club) with sociodemographic, substance use (eg, injection drug use, crack use), and past 3-month condom coercion (eg, client condom refusal/removal). We used logistic regressions with generalized estimating equations and exchangeable correlation structure to examine longitudinal associations between PPSW and subsequent condom coercion, adjusting for sociodemographic and substance use variables.Findings: Among participants (race/ethnicity: White: 67.5%; Black/African American: 22.8%; Latina/other ethnicity: n = 9.8%; age range: 18-61), most reported daily injection drug use (58.5%), daily crack use (62.2%), and homelessness (62.2%). Most (88.6%) reported any PPSW at baseline. Current PPSW was associated with increased odds of past 3-month condom coercion (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.16 to 2.94, P = 0.01) compared with indoor sex work, as was daily crack use (aOR 1.67, 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 2.37).Conclusions: Public sex work environments were associated with client condom coercion and confer additional sexual health risks in contexts of illegality. Interventions should address risk disparities in social geographies of sex work.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)579-583
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
Issue number5
StatePublished - 15 Dec 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • HIV prevention
  • condoms
  • drug use
  • sex workers
  • violence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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