Cancer chemotherapy and beyond: Current status, drug candidates, associated risks and progress in targeted therapeutics

Uttpal Anand, Abhijit Dey, Arvind K.Singh Chandel, Rupa Sanyal, Amarnath Mishra, Devendra Kumar Pandey, Valentina De Falco, Arun Upadhyay, Ramesh Kandimalla, Anupama Chaudhary, Jaspreet Kaur Dhanjal, Saikat Dewanjee, Jayalakshmi Vallamkondu, José M. Pérez de la Lastra

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Cancer is an abnormal state of cells where they undergo uncontrolled proliferation and produce aggressive malignancies that cause millions of deaths every year. With the new understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) of disease progression, our knowledge about the disease is snowballing, leading to the evolution of many new therapeutic regimes and their successive trials. In the past few decades, various combinations of therapies have been proposed and are presently employed in the treatment of diverse cancers. Targeted drug therapy, immunotherapy, and personalized medicines are now largely being employed, which were not common a few years back. The field of cancer discoveries and therapeutics are evolving fast as cancer type-specific biomarkers are progressively being identified and several types of cancers are nowadays undergoing systematic therapies, extending patients' disease-free survival thereafter. Although growing evidence shows that a systematic and targeted approach could be the future of cancer medicine, chemotherapy remains a largely opted therapeutic option despite its known side effects on the patient's physical and psychological health. Chemotherapeutic agents/pharmaceuticals served a great purpose over the past few decades and have remained the frontline choice for advanced-stage malignancies where surgery and/or radiation therapy cannot be prescribed due to specific reasons. The present report succinctly reviews the existing and contemporary advancements in chemotherapy and assesses the status of the enrolled drugs/pharmaceuticals; it also comprehensively discusses the emerging role of specific/targeted therapeutic strategies that are presently being employed to achieve better clinical success/survival rate in cancer patients.

Original languageEnglish
JournalGenes and Diseases
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2022

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial peptides
  • Cancer therapies
  • Clinical trials
  • Combination therapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Patient survival
  • Personalized medicine
  • Targeted drug delivery

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