The functional success rate of the ileoanal reservoir procedure for ulcerative colitis is quite high. Despite the few early and late complications described there is now widespread acceptance of this procedure in the management of ulcerative colitis. We report a patient who developed an adenocarcinoma in the rectal cuff four years after having a pelvic pouch procedure. This new late complication brings to light several points including the importance of a radical total mucosectomy. The purpose of this paper is to discuss concern as to whether or not this procedure is indicated in colitis patients in whom severe dysplasia is the primary indication for surgery.
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