Carbamazepine Removal by Clay-Based Materials Using Adsorption and Photodegradation

Ilil Levakov, Yuval Shahar, Giora Rytwo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Carbamazepine (CBZ) is one of the most common emerging contaminants released to the aquatic environment through domestic and pharmaceutical wastewater. Due to its high persistence through conventional degradation treatments, CBZ is considered a typical indicator for anthropogenic activities. This study tested the removal of CBZ through two different clay-based purification tech-niques: adsorption of relatively large concentrations (20–500 µmol L−1 ) and photocatalysis of lower concentrations (<20 µmol L−1 ). The sorption mechanism was examined by FTIR measurements, exchangeable cations released, and colloidal charge of the adsorbing clay materials. Photocatalysis was performed in batch experiments under various conditions. Despite the neutral charge of carba-mazepine, the highest adsorption was observed on negatively charged montmorillonite-based clays. Desorption tests indicate that adsorbed CBZ is not released by washing. The adsorption/desorption processes were confirmed by ATR-FTIR analysis of the clay-CBZ particles. A combination of synthetic montmorillonite or hectorite with low H2O2 concentrations under UVC irradiation exhibits efficient homo-heterogeneous photodegradation at µM CBZ levels. The two techniques presented in this study suggest solutions for both industrial and municipal wastewater, possibly enabling water reuse.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2047
JournalWater (Switzerland)
Issue number13
StatePublished - 1 Jul 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • adsorption
  • advanced oxidation processes
  • carbamazepine
  • clay minerals
  • organoclays
  • photocatalysis
  • water reuse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Biochemistry
  • Aquatic Science
  • Water Science and Technology


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