Carotenoid pigmentation affects the volatile composition of tomato and watermelon fruits, as revealed by comparative genetic analyses

Efraim Lewinsohn, Yaron Sitrit, Einat Bar, Yaniv Azulay, Ayala Meir, Dani Zamir, Yaakov Tadmor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

159 Scopus citations

Abstract

Tomato near-isogenic lines differing in fruit carotenogenesis genes accumulated different aroma volatiles, in a strikingly similar fashion as compared to watermelon cultivars differing in fruit color. The major volatile norisoprenoids present in lycopene-containing tomatoes and watermelons were noncyclic, such as geranial, neral, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, 2,6-dimethylhept-5-1-al, 2,3-epoxygeranial, (E,E)-pseudoionone, geranyl acetone, and farnesyl acetone, seemingly derived from lycopene and other noncyclic tetraterpenoids. β-lonone, dihydroactinodiolide, and β-cyclocitral were prominent in both tomato and watermelon fruits containing β-carotene. α-lonone was detected only in an orange-fleshed tomato mutant that accumulates δ-carotene. A yellow flesh (r) mutant tomato bearing a nonfunctional psy1 gene and the yellow-fleshed watermelon Early Moonbeam, almost devoid of carotenoid fruit pigments, also lacked norisoprenoid derivatives and geranial. This study provides evidence, based on comparative genetics, that carotenoid pigmentation patterns have profound effects on the norisoprene and monoterpene aroma volatile compositions of tomato and watermelon and that in these fruits geranial (trans-citral) is apparently derived from lycopene in vivo.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3142-3148
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Volume53
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - 20 Apr 2005

Keywords

  • Aroma
  • Carotenoids
  • Citral
  • Lycopene
  • Norisoprenoids
  • Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
  • Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus [Thunb.] Matsum. and Nakai)

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