Cesium Lead Iodide Perovskites: Optically Active Crystal Phase Stability to Surface Engineering

Yixi Wang, Hairong Zhao, Marek Piotrowski, Xiao Han, Zhongsheng Ge, Lizhuang Dong, Chengjie Wang, Sowjanya Krishna Pinisetty, Praveen Kumar Balguri, Anil Kumar Bandela, Udayabhaskararao Thumu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Among perovskites, the research on cesium lead iodides (CsPbI3) has attracted a large research community, owing to their all-inorganic nature and promising solar cell performance. Typically, the CsPbI3 solar cell devices are prepared at various heterojunctions, and working at fluctuating temperatures raises questions on the material stability-related performance of such devices. The fundamental studies reveal that their poor stability is due to a lower side deviation from Goldschmidt’s tolerance factor, causing weak chemical interactions within the crystal lattice. In the case of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites, where their stability is related to the inherent chemical nature of the organic cations, which cannot be manipulated to improve the stability drastically whereas the stability of CsPbI3 is related to surface and lattice engineering. Thus, the challenges posed by CsPbI3 could be overcome by engineering the surface and inside the CsPbI3 crystal lattice. A few solutions have been proposed, including controlled crystal sizes, surface modifications, and lattice engineering. Various research groups have been working on these aspects and had accumulated a rich understanding of these materials. In this review, at first, we survey the fundamental aspects of CsPbI3 polymorphs structure, highlighting the superiority of CsPbI3 over other halide systems, stability, the factors (temperature, polarity, and size influence) leading to their phase transformations, and electronic band structure along with the important property of the defect tolerance nature. Fortunately, the factors stabilizing the most effective phases are achieved through a size reduction and the efficient surface passivation on the delicate CsPbI3 nanocrystal surfaces. In the following section, we have provided the up-to-date surface passivating methods to suppress the non-radiative process for near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield, while maintaining their optically active phases, especially through molecular links (ligands, polymers, zwitterions, polymers) and inorganic halides. We have also provided recent advances to the efficient synthetic protocols for optically active CsPbI3 NC phases to use readily for solar cell applications. The nanocrystal purification techniques are challenging and had a significant effect on the device performances. In part, we summarized the CsPbI3-related solar cell device performances with respect to the device fabrication methods. At the end, we provide a brief outlook on the view of surface and lattice engineering in CsPbI3 NCs for advancing the enhanced stability which is crucial for superior optical and light applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1318
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • CsPbI NCs
  • cesium lead iodides
  • defect-tolerance
  • hot-injection method
  • ion exchanges
  • perovskite crystal structures
  • perovskite stability
  • photoluminescence
  • solar cell
  • surface engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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