Challenges in the Management of Acute Mastoiditis in Children

Sofia Kordeluk, Mordechai Kraus, Eugene Leibovitz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a rare but serious complication of otitis media. Recent studies consolidated the role of Streptococcus pyogenes as the second most important etiologic agent of AM and suggested an increased involvement of a relatively new pathogen (Fusobacterium necrophorum). The recently accumulated evidence on AM epidemiology in children is conflicting and not convincing in demonstrating clear trends during the last years. While a significant decrease was recorded in the incidence of pneumococcal invasive disease and complicated AOM following the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, data on the efficacy of these vaccines in the prevention of AM are limited and did not show any remarkable changes in the dynamics of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical findings in AM may differ according to the causative pathogen and different patient age subgroups. Together with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging became frequently used, particularly in the diagnosis of AM complications. Simple mastoidectomy remains the most reliable and effective surgical intervention for the treatment of subperiosteal abscesses.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCurrent Infectious Disease Reports
Volume17
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 May 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Acute otitis media
  • Antibiotic treatment
  • Complications
  • Mastoidectomy
  • Mastoiditis
  • Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae

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