Characterization of GP21 and GP12: Two potential probiotic bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Atlantic cod

Carlo C. Lazado, Christopher Marlowe A. Caipang, Binoy Rajan, Monica F. Brinchmann, Viswanath Kiron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


This study evaluated the probiotic potential of GP21 (Pseudomonas sp.) and GP12 (Psychrobacter sp.), two bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of a cold-water fish, Atlantic cod. The antagonistic activity of the two intestinal bacteria against two fish pathogens (Vibrio anguillarum and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida) was studied under different physical conditions. Further, their resistance to physiological barriers and their ability to form biofilms were examined. In addition, a test was conducted to confirm that the isolates were not pathogenic to the host fish. The two bacteria exhibited differences in their antagonism to the pathogens. Both were active against V. anguillarum at mildly acidic conditions over a 5-day period. The activity of GP21 against A. salmonicida was greater at pH 7-8. The maximum antagonistic activity was observed at a temperature of 15°C and at a salt concentration of 15 ppt for both the isolates. They did not produce acids, could release siderophores and tolerated both the acidic environment and the bile salts. Their ability to form biofilms was high around 15°C and when iron was supplemented in the medium at 5 μmol l-1. There was no mortality of fish during the pathogenicity experiment, confirming the safety of both isolates for further applications. Considering the favorable characteristics identified here, it could be concluded that GP21 and GP12 isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Atlantic cod are potential probiotic candidates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)126-134
Number of pages9
JournalProbiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Jun 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Antagonism
  • Atlantic cod
  • Intestinal bacteria
  • Pathogens
  • Probiotics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology


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