Failure to inflate the swim bladder is regarded a major obstacle in the rearing of many fish species. We present a study of swim bladder non-inflation (SBN) in angelfish, Pterophyllum scalare. A normal developing primordial swim bladder was first discernable at the end of the first day post-hatch (p.h.) as a cluster of epithelial cells with a central lumen, surrounded by presumably mesenchymal cells. Initial inflation occurred on the fourth day p.h. Prior to inflation the swim bladder epithelium consisted of an outer squamous and inner columnar layer. Cells of the inner layer were filled at their basal region with an amorphous material, which disappeared upon inflation. A pneumatic duct was absent, and larvae presented no need to reach the water surface for inflation, suggesting that angelfish are pure physoclists. A model for the role of the amorphous material in normal initial inflation is proposed. Abnormal swim bladders were apparent from the fourth day p.h., and methylene blue (MB) at a concentration of 5 ppm significantly increased the prevalence of SBN. Histologically, abnormal swim bladders in larvae hatched in 5 ppm MB could not be distinguished from those in fish raised under routine conditions (0.5 ppm MB). We suggest that MB may have a teratogenic effect in angelfish.
- Methylene blue
- Swim bladder