Chemistry and biology of the ubiquitin signal

Liat Spasser, Ashraf Brik

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

99 Scopus citations

Abstract

Ubiquitination is one of the most utilized posttranslational modifications in eukaryotes and is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, but is mostly known as a signal for proteasomal degradation. Recently, it has become clear that the ubiquitin signal is far more complex and is dictated by the ubiquitin component and the substrate. The remarkable diversity of the ubiquitin signaling process has triggered an incredible amount of effort to investigate the role of ubiquitination on biological processes. However, despite more than three decades of studies, several important questions remain unanswered. A major hurdle is the inability to obtain homogeneous ubiquitin bioconjugates in sufficient amounts from cells or by application of the enzymatic machinery. Recent breakthroughs in chemical and semisynthetic strategies, however, offer solutions to these challenges. In this Review, we survey the fundamental biological aspects of the ubiquitin signal and present the emerging non-enzymatic approaches for overcoming these obstacles. Despite enormous effort, important questions concerning ubiquitination remain unanswered. A major hurdle is the difficulty in obtaining homogeneous ubiquitin bioconjugates. Recent breakthroughs in chemical and semisynthetic strategies now offer a solution to this problem, by enabling the production of larger amounts of such conjugates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6840-6862
Number of pages23
JournalAngewandte Chemie - International Edition
Volume51
Issue number28
DOIs
StatePublished - 9 Jul 2012

Keywords

  • chemical synthesis
  • deubiquitinases
  • posttranstional modifications
  • semisynthesis
  • ubiquitin

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