Use of adoptive T-cell therapy modified with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-T) has revolutionized treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory (r/r) B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). CAR-T cells directed against CD19 antigen have produced response rates as high as 90% in clinical trials for r/r B-ALL. Despite high rates of complete remissions, the durability of responses has been sub-optimal with frequent relapses, especially in adult B-ALL population. Systemic toxicities from CAR-T therapy and standardization of toxicities grading and management is another major hurdle in the development of CAR-T field. In this review, we discuss the latest evidence of CAR-T therapy in B-ALL, potential mechanisms of relapse and barriers to CAR-T cell therapy in B-ALL. We also debate the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HCT) post CAR-T therapy.
- CAR-T therapy
- acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- allogeneic transplant after CAR-T therapy
- chimeric antigen receptor
- relapse after CAR-T therapy