Clinical results of endarterectomy of the right and left anterior descending coronary arteries

Dan Abrahamov, Miguel Tamaris, Veena Guru, Steve Fremes, George Christakis, Gopal Bhatnagar, Jeri Sever, Bernard Goldman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

In this study, we examined the clinical outcome of coronary endarterectomy. From 1990 to 1998, 4839 patients underwent surgical revascularization. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) was performed alone on 4516 patients, was combined with right coronary artery endarterectomy (RCA-E) in 242 patients, and was combined with left anterior descending coronary artery endarterectomy (LAD-E) in 81 patients. An analysis of preoperative variables revealed a higher proportion of males (90.7% vs 80.2%, p < 0.001), of patients with low ejection fraction (< 35%; 4.6% vs 1.7%, p < 0.001), and of three-vessel disease (47.9% vs 36%, p < 0.001) in the RCA-E versus the CABG patients. There was a higher proportion of unstable angina (51.9% vs 40.3%, p = 0.04) in the LAD-E patients. The 30-day mortality rate for CABG was 2% versus 2.5% for RCA-E and 3.7% for LAD-E (p = NS). Perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) rate for CABG was 3.4% versus 7.0% for RCA-E (p < 0.001) and 4.9% for LAD-E patients (p = NS). Postoperative low cardiac output syndrome was recorded in 11.5% of CABG, 18.6% of RCA-E (p = 0.01), and 11.1% of LAD-E (p = NS) patients. Predictors of postoperative bad outcome (death, MI, low cardiac output, cerebrovascular accident) were preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump, repeat operation, ejection fraction of < 35%, renal insufficiency, female gender, RCA-E, and age over 70. Protective factors included the use of internal mammary artery, multiple arterial grafts, and warm cardioplegia. Actuarial analysis at 6, 12, and 24 months showed late mortality rates of 0.8%, 1.3%, and 2.1% for CABG; 1.2%, 3.7%, and 3.7% for RCA-E; and 2.9%, 2.9%, and 2.9% for LAD-E, respectively. Late MI occurrence was 0.4%, 0.4%, and 0.7% for CABG; 1.5%, 1.5%, and 2.7% for RCA-E; and 0% for LAD-E, respectively. Multivariate analysis found renal insufficiency, ejection fraction of < 35%, repeat operation, female gender, New York Heart Association functional class IV, and diabetes to be predictors for late adverse events (recurrence of angina, MI, and cardiac death), and RCA-E was found to be a predictor of late MI. We conclude that the use of coronary endarterectomy to achieve complete revascularization in patients with diffuse distal coronary artery disease is a reasonable option, associated with a minimal addition in complication rates.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-25
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cardiac Surgery
Volume14
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Jan 1999
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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