Close Target Reconnaissance

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


The focus of the current study was on how the dismounted soldiers' decision cycle is affected by the use of a display device for utilizing intelligence from an unmanned ground vehicle during a patrol mission. Via a handheld monocular display, participants received a route map and sensor imagery from the vehicle that was ∼20-50 m ahead. Twenty-two male participants were divided into two groups, with or without the sensor imagery. Each participant navigated for 2 km in a military urban terrain training facility, while encountering civilians, moving and stationary suspects, and improvised explosive devices. The OODA loop (observe-orient-decide-act) framework was used to examine soldiers' decisions. The experimental group was slower to respond to threats and to orient. They also reported higher workload, more difficulties in allocating their attention to the environment, and more frustration. These can be partially attributed to the novelty of the technological capability, but also to its implementation in the study. The breakdown of performance metrics into the OODA loop components enabled analysis of the major difficulties in the decision-making process. This evaluation highlights the need for new roles in combat-team setups and for additional training when unmanned vehicle sensor imagery is introduced.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-80
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2017


  • OODA
  • UGV
  • dismounted soldier
  • field evaluation
  • handheld display
  • naturalistic decision making
  • sensemaking
  • unmanned ground vehicle
  • unmanned system
  • urban terrain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Applied Psychology
  • Computer Science Applications


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