Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

Pantelis Lioumis, Reza Zomorrodi, Itay Hadas, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Daniel M. Blumberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method that produces neural excitation in the cortex by means of brief, time-varying magnetic field pulses. The initiation of cortical activation or its modulation depends on the background activation of the neurons of the cortical region activated, the characteristics of the coil, its position and its orientation with respect to the head. TMS combined with simultaneous electrocephalography (EEG) and neuronavigation (nTMS-EEG) allows for the assessment of cortico-cortical excitability and connectivity in almost all cortical areas in a reproducible manner. This advance makes nTMS-EEG a powerful tool that can accurately assess brain dynamics and neurophysiology in test-retest paradigms that are required for clinical trials. Limitations of this method include artifacts that cover the initial brain reactivity to stimulation. Thus, the process of removing artifacts may also extract valuable information. Moreover, the optimal parameters for dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) stimulation are not fully known and current protocols utilize variations from the motor cortex (M1) stimulation paradigms. However, evolving nTMS-EEG designs hope to address these issues. The protocol presented here introduces some standard practices for assessing neurophysiological functioning from stimulation to the DLPFC that can be applied in patients with treatment resistant psychiatric disorders that receive treatment such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), magnetic seizure therapy (MST) or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere57983
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number138
StatePublished - 17 Aug 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography
  • Depression
  • Intracortical facilitation
  • Issue 138
  • Long intracortical inhibition
  • Magnetic seizure therapy
  • Neuroscience
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Short intracortical inhibition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (all)
  • Chemical Engineering (all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology (all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Combined transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this