Combining Deep Learning with Good Old-Fashioned Machine Learning

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We present a comprehensive, stacking-based framework for combining deep learning with good old-fashioned machine learning, called Deep GOld. Our framework involves ensemble selection from 51 retrained pretrained deep networks as first-level models, and 10 machine-learning algorithms as second-level models. Enabled by today’s state-of-the-art software tools and hardware platforms, Deep GOld delivers consistent improvement when tested on four image-classification datasets: Fashion MNIST, CIFAR10, CIFAR100, and Tiny ImageNet. Of 120 experiments, in all but 10 Deep GOld improved the original networks’ performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number85
JournalSN Computer Science
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • Deep learning
  • Image analysis
  • Machine learning
  • Pattern recognition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Computer Science (all)
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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